Anterior/Posterior (anatomic terms)
American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons
A portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis
To draw away from the midline
The act of drawing away from the midline; opposite of adduction
A muscle performing the function of abduction
Localized collection of pus
The cavity in the os coxae (hip) into which the head of the femur fits
Bony process of the scapula which forms the point of the shoulder
Severe and/or short duration; used in speaking of duration and severity of disease
Extremely hard, as enamel of tooth
To draw toward the midline
The act of drawing toward the midline; opposite abduction
A tissue transplanted to a different individual of the same species
A mix of metals designed to improve implant material properties for specific purposes
A component composed entirely of polyethylene, with no metal parts
A joint with little movement and no joint cavity
Pertaining to the elbow
The fusion of a joint
A forward curvature; a condition in which the upper part of an organ is bent forward; opposite of retroflexion
Placed in the front or forward part; opposite of posterior
A forward turning; a condition in which an entire organ is abnormally tipped forward
Top or summit
A flat sheet of white fibrous tissue, usually serving as an attachment for a muscle; plural aponeuroses; aponeurotica, Latin adjective
Device used in support or fracture fixation external or internal
The state of being fitted together, being in contact at the ends (see also mineral apposition)
Inflammation of a joint
Fusion of a joint, eliminating all motion
The surgical reconstruction of a joint
A joint: from the Greek
Cutting into a joint
Pertaining to a joint; surfaces that "fit together"
Movement of a joint; from the Latin
A condition free from germs; free from infection
Position, surface, or face
To remove by suction
A design which mirrors the natural, anatomic contours of a joint, a design which comes in right and left configurations
A wasting away of tissue usually through disuse
A tissue transplanted from one part to another part of the same body
Being self-controlled; independent
Pertaining to the axis or line about which a body turns, therefore pertaining to the trunk; opposite of appendicular
Term used to describe implant coatings made of tiny spheres (beading)
Turning about two axes (having two axes)
Having two concave surfaces
Occurring on both sides of a midline point or pertaining to both sides of the body (ex. bilateral knee replacement means having both knees replaced)
Materials that can coexist with living tissue without being harmful or toxic or being rejected by the host. The most common materials for joint replacement are polyethylenes, metals and ceramics, each has specific biocompatible characteristics
The study of the relationship between forces and motion in biologic systems like the human body
Having two poles or processes
A fluid tissue circulating through heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries
Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone (see also cement)
Pertaining to the arm
A tool or instrument used to enlarge the interior canal of bones to allow for insertion of implants, broaching is the process of enlarging the canal
A type of spinal implant
The heel bone; also termed calcaneum
A thickened plate of bone near the head of the femur
Lattice-like bone structure; softer bone
A type of bone characterized by a spongy or lattice-like structure. Also known as Trabecular Bone.
A specially-manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits bone ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also CSTi)
Bone of the wrist having head-shaped process.
A ligament which surrounds a movable joint.
Head; capitis, "of the head."
Pertaining to the wrist.
The wrist; carpi, "of the wrist."
Pertaining to any tail-like structure; inferior in position.
Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone. (Bone cement)
An implant which is secured in a patient’s body with the aid of bone cement or the process of using cement to help fix an implant.
Situated in the midportion as opposed to peripheral.
Of long duration; opposite of acute.
To rotate in a cone shape around a single point, as in the shoulder joint.
Bent or turned about.
The collar bone
Established methodologies and decision trees for use by health professionals and patients in planning and preparing for medical intervention.
Any number of different materials applied to the surface of an implant or prosthesis to aid in fixation; porous coatings generally permit ingrowth into the implant. (see also porous, beads)
A metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants. (also see CoCr)
Last, lowest portion of vertebral column (tailbone).
Cobalt Chrome Alloy, a metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants.
The top edge of a hip stem implant which rests on the top edges of the bone in which it was implanted.
A part of an implant system, for example the patellar component is that piece that either replaces or enhances the original patella (knee cap).
Having a depressed surface; center is at a lower level than edge; opposite of convex.
A rounded knob on the end of a hone; a knuckle.
Resembling a knuckle.
Present at birth, as in CDH, congenital dislocated hip.
The degree of constraint of two articular implants. (congruence)
Having a rounded elevated surface; opposite of concave.
Like a crow's beak; variant of coronoid.
Pertaining to a rib or ribs.
The hip; coxae, "of the hip."
Pertaining to the cranium.
The skull or brain pan.
Shaped like a cross.
Any paired set of ligaments that cross over each other in an "X" formation, usually used to refer to the posterior cruciate ligament and the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which help stabilize the forward and backward motion of the knee.
A knee system design that allows the surgeon to keep the patient’s cruciate ligament.
A knee system in which the design of the implant must serve to stabilize the forward and back motion of the knee components because of an excised or deficient patient’s ligament. (see also PS)
A specially manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also Cancellous-structured titanium)
Pertaining to the tile space in front of the elbow joint.
An implant manufactured to the demands of a surgeon based on the specific needs of one patient
A biomechanical measure of stress placed on a material, measured in "cycles" of regular motion (as in joint motion - rotation, bending, etc.)
Triangular; resembling the Greek letter, delta.
The justification for an implant design based on extensive research into materials, clinical data, function, style, anatomical constraints, etc.
Recognition of disease from symptoms.
A freely moveable joint; plural diarthroses.
Of a digit.
Of the digits.
The displacement of any part, especially the removal temporarily of a bone from its normal position in a joint
Remote; opposite of proximal.
To turn toward the back; opposite of palmar flex.
Tissue surrounding the medullary cavity of bone.
A prefix meaning "on" or "above", opposite of hypo.
A prominence or a bone on or upon a condyle.
A part of process of a bone which ossifles separately before making osseous union with the main portion of the bone; the "growth plate" of bones
The study of the causes of disease
The act of turning outward; opposite of inversion.
To turn out; to turn tile sole of the foot outward opposite of invert.
A movement at a joint bringing the two parts into or toward a straight line from a flexed position; opposite of flexion
On the surface or outer side; opposite of internal. Latin adjective, externus or externa
Prefix meaning "outside of," opposite of intra
Food and Drug Administration
Thigh; bone of the thigh; femoral is the adjective; femoris, "of the thigh." Smaller bone of lower leg; tile splint bone
The act, process or operation of holding, suturing or fastening something into a fixed position. In orthopedics, often refers to the stability and immobilization of an implant into the patient’s body
Sagittal plane movement in which the anterior surfaces of two segments are brought closer to each other; opposite of extension; bending of a joint
The curved or bent part of a structure
A hole; plural, foramina, or foramens
A pit or hollow; plural, fossae
A break in the continuity of bone
Resembling a pit or pocket. The glenoid fossa of the scapula is very shallow. Analogous to the acetabulum of the hip
Good Manufacturing Practices, part of total quality systems
The great toe; hallucis "of the great toe"
A numerical rating scale used for evaluation of the hip. The Harris Hip Rating Scale evaluates pain, function, absence of deformity and range of motion. One hundred is the highest possible total.
Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scores, a numerical scale for rating knees.
The upper arm bone.
A bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic similar to normal bone, may be applied to implant surfaces.
Prefix meaning above; opposite of hypo.
Increase in size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells.
Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells.
A prefix meaning below or under; opposite or epi or hyper.
Investigational Device Exemption (studies of experimental products).
The bone of the flank; adjective is iliac; ilio is the combining form.
A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body. (see also stem, prosthesis)
Referring to the forefinger or "pointing" finger.
Situated or placed below; opposite of superior; inferioris, a Latin form of the adjective.
A prefix meaning "beneath," opposite of supra.
The process of living bone or tissue growing up to and into the surface of an implant, very important for stabilization and long-term life of the implant. (bone or bony ingrowth)
A tool or implement used in surgery.
A prefix meaning "between".
A surgical technique for achieving bony fusion between invertebral bodies, term used to describe a specific back surgery technique.
Surface forming a common boundary between two bodies (used to describe the interaction of implant and living tissue).
Within or on the inside.
A prefix meaning "within".
The act of tuning inward; opposite of eversion.
To turn in; to turn the sole of the foot inward; opposite of evert.
Performed against the will or consent.
Bone of the hip; adjective is ischiatic, ischial, or sciatic.
International Standards Organization, a standards issuing body.
A numerical scale for evaluating knee function developed by the Knee Society.
An abnormal condition (curvature) of the spine; hunch-backed.
Pertaining to the side; opposite of medial.
Low-demand or low density
Low Density Polyethylene
Fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones serving to bind them together and to facilitate or limit motion.
Abnormal anterior convexity of the lumbar spine.
Space within a tube or organ.
A bone of the carpus shaped like a crescent moon.
Dislocation of a joint.
Medial/Lateral (anatomic term)
Larger, opposite of minor, majus is neuter adjective.
A little hammer (mallet); a hammer-shaped process; ankle bone. Plural, malleoli.
Bone of lower jaw.
Soft central part of a bone.
A jawbone; particularly the bone of the upper jaw.
Pertaining to the center; opposite of lateral.
Pertaining to the middle; that is, between two other structures.
Removal of the meniscus cartilage of the knee.
A "C" shaped cartilage in the knee which provides a stabilization system for the knee and a measure of shock absorption
Beyond the instep; the five bones of the foot between the toes and tarsal bone
Term used to describe implants that have a polyethylene liner set in a metal shell or on a metal base, the metal portion would rest in a prepared area in the bone and the polyethylene side would move against other metal components
Smaller, opposite of major.
The study of the structure of organisms, used colloquially to refer to the structure of body parts
Boat shaped; carpal bone at the base of the thumb. Also called the scaffoid
Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy tissue.
An implant designed to be used with bone cement for stabilization; a surface that is not designed for nor coated with surfaces for ingrowth
Open Reduction, Internal Fixation.
Slanting; between horizontal and vertical direction..; Latin adjective, obliquus
From the Greek word for elbow. The prominence at the proximal end of the ulna
The act of opposing one part to another.
Pertaining to the orbit (eye).
A group of tissues having a special function.
Branch of medical science that deals with treatment of disorders involving locomotor structures of the body, especially the skeleton, joints, muscle, fascia.
A physician specializing in orthopedics.
Bone; Os coxae - hip bone.
Passage of fluid across a membrane from a lesser to a more highly concentrated solution
Formation of bone.
An abnormal bony outgrowth
Increased porosity of bone.
Cutting and repositioning bone to more functional position.
The process of collecting, tracking and interpreting outcomes data
The results of surgery in terms of patient satisfaction, reduction of pain, improved function, etc. Outcomes are tracked by hospitals and practices.
A patented procedure used by Zimmer in the packaging of polyethylenes where oxygen is removed from the packaging. Lab testing has shown the process decreases the wear rates of PE (polyethylene).
The palm of the hand.
Prefix meaning "beside," "accessory to" or near.
Surveys which seek to measure patients’ satisfaction with their surgery, recovery, etc. These form part of the outcomes data that surgeons and hospitals track.
Expert surgical techniques developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures. (see surgical pearls)
Pertaining to the foot.
A basin or basin-like structure.
Prefix meaning "around."
Located on or near the surface of a part.
The foot; pedis, "of the foot."
Plural of phalanx, which refers to any bone of the finger or toe.
Pertaining to the sole of the foot; plaritaris; Latin adjective plantae, "of the sole of the foot."
Fluid portion of the blood.
A coating for implants
A common term that in orthopedic devices refers usually to polyethylene and more specifically to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). (see also polyethylene, UHMWPE)
Pre-Market Approval (FDA approval after IDE study is complete).
Poly methylmethacrylate (bone cement). (see also cement, bone cement)
A type of plastic formed by the polymerization of ethylene. Different structural properties come from differences in molecular weight, branching, cross-linkage and crystallinity. The most common form used in orthopedic devices is ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE).
Small holes or spaces on the surface or interior of a material.
Characterized by pores and open spaces.
The design feature of a type of implant where the metal has small surface openings into which bone or tissue is intended to grow for permanent stabilization.
Situated behind or toward the back; opposite of anterior.
Describes the fit at the interface of an implant with the surrounding bone; the implant is implanted without cement and is tightly "pressed" or impacted into the patient’s bone. (see also uncemented)
Initial or first; in joint replacement, this term is used to indicate the first surgery to repair or replace a joint as opposed to a revision surgery which replaces or revises an implant.
A slender projecting point; Latin, processus.
The likely outcome of an illness
To turn palm downward (opposite: supinate).
Lying with face downward (opposite: supine).
Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute. An artificial organ or part.
To extend forward or outward; opposite of retract.
Nearest; opposite of distal.
Posterior Stabilized; a posterior stabilized knee is a type of semiconstrained total knee system that compensates for a deficient or absent posterior cruciate ligament through its surface geometry (its design minimizes forward and backward movement of the knee and substitutes for the function of the ligament).
A false joint developing after a fracture that has not united.
A prefix signifying "false.
Allowing x-rays to pass through, radiolucent areas appear dark on x-rays.
A bone of the forearm.
A verb meaning to gouge out holes or enlarge holes already made, in orthopedic surgery, bones need to be reamed to allow for the implantation of a prosthesis.
Hyperextension of the knee.
Restoration to normal position.
To pull back; opposite of protract.
To remove an implant from a patient (retrieved, retrieval)
Prefix meaning behind.
A backward bending of one part of an organ on another portion; Opposite of anteflexion.
A backward turning; the entire organ is turned backward; opposite of anteversion.
In orthopedic surgery, this term indicates a subsequent surgery to alter, replace or remove an implant
A photograph made by means of roentgen rays or x-rays. The rays are named in honor of their discoverer.
Examination by means of a fluoroscope
The area through which a joint may be moved in all planes, measured in degrees. The greater the ROM, the more flexible the joint. One of the goals of joint replacement is to improve a patient’s ROM in the joint that may have been lost to arthritis, trauma or deformity. (range of motion)
The act of turning about a centrally located length axis
Any bag-like organ
Five fused vertebrae below the last lumbar vertebra
Pertaining to the median vertical plane of the body
The shoulder blade.
Lateral abnormal curvature of the spine
Shaped like a half moon
Infection due to presence of pathogenlc organisms
Having a saw-tooth edge
Clear portion of any animal fluid
A biomechanical term meaning a load applied parallel to the surface of a structure; shear strength is the amount of resistance in a material to angular deformation (bending) resulting from shear forces
The acetabular component, the part of a hip replacement system that serves for the hip socket
The hard framework of the body. The bones of the body collectively
A spine-like process; Latin adjective, spinatus
A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body (see also implant, prosthesis)
Clean and free from all living micro-organisms
The breast bone
Prefix meaning "below" or "beneath"
Beneath the clavicle
A partial or incomplete dislocation
Beneath the maxilla
Beneath the scapula
The settling of a prosthesis after implantation; it is determined by comparing x-rays immediately after surgery to x-rays taken at a later date. Subsidence is a sure sign of loosening of an implant
Higher; opposite of inferior; superioris, a Latin form of the adjective
To turn the palm of the hand upward (opposite: pronate)
Lying flat on the back (opposite: prone)
Prefix meaning "above;" super has same meaning; opposite of sub
Expert surgical techniques or tips developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures
A series of steps required to complete a surgical procedure (or operation)
A growing together
An immovable joint
A union of bones by means of cartilage
A thin tissue that lines the capsule surrounding the joint
The ankle; a bone of the ankle. The tarsal bone articulating with the distal tibia and fibula.
(1) The instep; the seven bones forming the back portion of the foot (2) Connective tissue framework of the eyelids.
An instructional course or lecture provided by one-way video, often a telesession consists of an expert surgeon discussing and/or demonstrating specific techniques or characteristics of an implant system.
An outline used to trace bones in order to standardize its form; surgeons use templates of implants to measure against a patient’s x-rays to select the best size and best design for the patient’s anatomy and surgical needs.
Fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones and other parts. Syn. - sinew
A biomechanical measurement of the amount of stress required to cause a given material to fail.
Pertaining to the chest; thoracico or thoraco, containing forms
The abbreviation for Titanium, a metal often used in implants
Latin name of shin bone. Larger bone in the lower leg. Pertaining to the tibia; Latin adjective, tibialis
A collection of similar cells specialized to perform a particular function
A metal often used in the manufacture of orthopedic devices or implants. It has good fatigue, wear and strength characteristics and is often combined with other metals in alloys which enhance desirable characteristics.
A type of mature bone commonly found at the ends of bones, it is composed of a latticework of bony plates and columns. Its structure gives trabecular bone a great deal of strength despite having less bony material than cortical bone.
Either of two bony processes of the upper femoral shaft for muscle attachment
The articular portion of the anterior surface of the distal femur (the front-facing notch at the lowest part of the femur where the femur joins the knee joint, this groove provides a shallow depression where the patella slides as the knee articulates).
A small rounded elevation of eminence on a bone
Broad eminence on a bone
Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, a type of polyethylene with superior wear properties, very commonly used in orthopedic devices. (see also polyethylene, plastic)
The inner and larger bone or the forearm; In the correct anatomic position, palms forward, the inner and larger bone of the forearm, between the wrist and the elbow, on the side opposite the thumb.
Highly congruent, contains a high degree of constraint between two articular implants (see also congruent)
A prosthesis that is implanted without cement (see also press-fit)
Unicompartmental knee (also can be the abbreviation for unilateral)
One-sided, affecting only one-side (ex. a unilateral knee replacement would replace just one knee, not both) (see also uni)
A term denoting position meaning bent outward (knock-knee) or twisted, applied especially to deformities in which a part is bent outward. Also increased femoral head-neck angle
This is a broad term that encompasses systems that help orthopedic customers (surgeons and hospitals) meet the demands of managed care, these systems are not directly related to orthopedic implants
(1) Turned inward; bowlegged. (2) A condition in which a clubfooted person walks on outer border of the foot. Also, decreased femoral head-neck angle
Wide or great
The summit or apex
Sticky or gummy, thick fluid
Performed in accordance with the will; opposite of involuntary
The loss of material from solid surfaces due to mechanical abrasion